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Oskar Diethelm Library, Weill Cornell Medical College



American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Undifferentiated somatoform disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

 Beard, G. M. (1881). American nervousness: Its causes and consequences. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

 Black, J.M. (2009). Corporate calling cards: Advertising trade cards and logos in the United States, 1876-1890. The Journal of American Culture, 32(4), 291-306.

 Fox, W. (1876). The diseases of the stomach. Philadelphia, PA: Henry C. Lea.

 Grinnell, A.P. (1906). A review of drug consumption and alcohol as found in proprietary medicine. [From advance sheets Medico-Legal Journal]. New York, NY.

 Hale, M.E. (2000). The nineteenth-century American trade card. The Business History Review, 74(4), 683-688.

 Hall, W.W. (1877). Dyspepsia and its kindred diseases. New York, NY: R. Worthington.

 Heale, M.J. (1973). The Role of the frontier in Jacksonian politics: David Crockett and the myth of the self-made man. The Western Historical Quarterly, 4(4), 405-423.

 Holbrook, M.L. (1876). Liver complaint, nervous dyspepsia, and headache: Their causes, prevention, and cure. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.

 Indigestion.  (n.d.). Retrieved August 7, 2012 from Greenwood Village, CO: Thomson Reuters (Healthcare) Inc.

 Jay, R. (1987). The trade card in nineteenth century America. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.

 Pinkus, R. L. (2002). From Lydia Pinkham to Bob Dole: What the changing face of direct-to-consumer drug advertising reveals about the professionalism of medicine. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 12(2), 141-158.

 Pernick, M.S. (1983). The Calculus of suffering in nineteenth-century surgery. The Hastings Center Report, 13(2), 26-36.

 Risse, G.B., Numbers, R.L., & Walter Leavitt, J. (1977). Medicine without doctors: Home health care in American history. New York, NY: Science History Publications.

 Street, J.P. (1917). The composition of certain patent and proprietary medicines. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association.

 Toled-Pereya, L.H. (2006). A history of American medicine from the colonial period to the early twentieth century. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012, April 23). 1800 Fast facts. Retrieved July 26, 2012, from

 U.S. Census Bureau. (2012, April 23). 1850 Fast facts. Retrieved July 26, 2012, from

 U.S. Census Bureau. (2012, April 23). 1900 Fast facts. Retrieved July 26, 2012, from

 U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2010, April 4). Background on drug advertising. Retrieved August 1, 2012, from

 World Health Organization. (2010.) Neurasthenia. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision.  Geneva: World Health Organization.